Philo 171
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 ISTURIS Questions for the Third Exam

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PostSubject: ISTURIS Questions for the Third Exam   ISTURIS Questions for the Third Exam Icon_minitimeSun Mar 29, 2009 11:46 pm

1. Why is “freedom” (or the idea that is free) a fundamental requirement in/for morality? Do you see any “parallelism” between Kantian ethics and Existentialism with regards to the conception of freedom in each? Why or why not? What are the similarities or the differences?

2. After careful considerations of the various ethical theories/views we discussed, what “personal moral system or code” can you come up with and which you can adopt? Be sure to talk about the values, precepts/ideas, and other elements that should comprise this “personal moral system or code”. Include your conception of freedom and accountability in this given moral system and your view of what it means to be a moral individual.
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roan isturis

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PostSubject: Re: ISTURIS Questions for the Third Exam   ISTURIS Questions for the Third Exam Icon_minitimeMon Mar 30, 2009 10:01 pm

1. First of all, freedom in this question is defined as an idea or thinking that is free; not freedom to do anything you want. Morality must be based on an objective line of thought which is very difficult. I must mention that it is common perception that morality must be universal or must apply to all. This is one reason why freedom is a requirement. See, in order to be universal and fair to all, morality must be unbiased, must be based on an uninfluenced thinking. Also related to this is the concept of autonomy. An assumption from universality is that all are entitled equal rights. One of these rights is freedom. But, must morality really be universal? Perusing one nature of morality may answer this. Morality is a standard than can be used to judge cultures, beliefs and practices. So to judge these diverse cultures, morality must be an umbrella code of conduct or all encompassing. This relates back to objectivity and idea that is free, and so on.
Kantian and Existentialism
Both Kant’s rationalist philosophy and existentialism are fans of freedom and free will. First parallelism is that concept that individuals are not contingent to anyone or anything. Individuals exist as is per se. Therefore, individual are not under or subordinates of anyone but themselves.
Another similarity is the respect for individuals. Freedom in this sense means that Individuals have intrinsic worth. This was seen in the film Antonia, in the scene where Antonia accosted Pete for raping Therese. It would have been understandable or even expected for Antonia to show violence e towards Pete. However, Antonia did not even touch Pete. This shows respect for individuals. A person may be evil, but it is never justifiable to inflict the same evils to that person. In this concept, freedom is seen as inviolable. Antonia was free to do as she wants but Pete also has freedom which Antonia cannot step upon.
Yet another similarity is the application of the concepts of freedom, free will and autonomy. Any decisions made by an individual must be respected and taken as they are. Also, individuals must be understood apart from other individuals. Related to this is the concept of phenomenology, particularity and uniqueness. Kant and existentialism both uphold individualism, that all individuals have moral worth and the capacity to think rationally. Freedom in this concept is the freedom to think for the self, independently.

2. My morality
Morality - my code/principles of conduct which I have formulated through my independent and subjective rational thinking.
Moral – An individual, who acts within his / her sphere of existence, must not step upon the freedom/rights of other individuals. These acts must be for the individual’s good/well being on the minimum.
Freedom – a nature, intrinsic characteristic/ worth of all individuals. Both a limiting and freeing capacity. A person is free to do as he/she likes but must not step on or affect negatively other persons’ freedom. A person’s freedom ends where another person’s freedom begins.
Formula of relativity- the morality that I have imposed on myself must not be coerced or applied to other individuals.
Formula of Accountability and responsibility- the principles/rules that I have enforced upon myself must be followed strictly. I am accountable for my freedom and therefore must be responsible for the consequences of any of my actions which have been acted from my freedom. Meaning, acts that i have performed or decision that I have made in the absence or the forceful barring of my freedom by an external agent, must not be accounted or taken against me.
I am responsible for my freedom in the sense that i have the responsibility to guard it against it dissolution by external factors.
Formula of individualism- all individuals must be respected and a person must not meddle with another individual’s existence unless the interference was solicited by that other individual.
Formula of detachment- if you do not like or think that another person is doing something not right but not necessarily wrong, and will not affect you eventually, do not concern yourself. Example: sweeping Faura Street using a soft broom, a parent spanking a child on the buttocks with a slipper, wound tattooing a teenager in some tribe.
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